Annual, nectariferous, medicinal, spice plant. Grows best in light clay/sandy loam. Grows fast. Seeds and young leaves (which have a hot taste) are used as food.
Seeds are used to produce mustard powder. Mustard powder can be used with meat and fish dishes as seasoning, leaves – can be used in salads.
Mustard is used to cure atherosclerosis, gastro-intestinal diseases, rheumatism, and eczema.
1,0 g contains approximately 145 seeds.
White mustard or English mustard (Sinapis alba) is an annual cruciferous oil plant that has the ability to release poorly soluble phosphates. It can grow on any soil: pH from very acidic to alkaline.
Seeds germinate at + 3 ° C. Seedlings can withstand short-term frosts down to -5 ° C.
Mustard rises quickly and grows quickly. The green mass is mowed when the leaves of the plant are fresh, juicy, preferably before mass flowering, because when harvesting at a later date, the leaves will begin to die off and the organic mass will decrease, and the ripened seeds will clog the garden bed.
On average, the period from sowing to embedding of mustard in the soil is 55-70 days (8-10 weeks). It is better to embed it in the soil or dig a little, and by the fall everything will have rotted.
Seeding rate of seeds is 2.5-4.0 g / m2. The depth of planting in the soil is 2-3 cm (sowing is lightly sealed with a rake into the soil).
The next culture is planted no earlier than 3-4 weeks after the planting of the green mass. It is also important the phytosanitary effect of mustard - after planting it, the incidence of plants with such common diseases as late blight, rhizoctonia, tuber scab, fusarium rot, incl. and potatoes.
Sowing of mustard reduces the number of wireworms in the soil, it is also recommended to plow white mustard in late autumn, as a result of disturbed wintering of the wireworm, its death occurs.
To increase the effectiveness of the fight against the wireworm, the seeding rate of mustard is increased to 5.0 g / m2.
In recent years, many farmers refuse to use manure. It is not easy to get it in the right quantities, the labor intensity is high and the price is high. Moreover, the contamination of the site with weeds (in the case of manure application) will force the use of herbicides or exhausting weeding. In this case, green fertilizer will serve as a serious alternative to manure.
Green fertilizer is understood as green manure crops, the fresh plant mass of which is used for fertilization (plowed) to enrich the soil with organic matter.
* What are the benefits of siderates?
Siderata stop the leaching of nutrients outside the root layer, pump nutrients from the deep horizons of the soil into the upper layer, and contribute to the accumulation of humus in the soil, which improves its properties. The more humus is contained in the soil, the lower its thermal conductivity and higher heat capacity, less physical evaporation of water from it, more productive use of soil moisture by cultivated plants. Humus contributes to the intensive development of beneficial soil microflora.
The biomass of the root systems of herbaceous plants plays an important role in enriching the soil with organic residues. When green fertilizer is applied, not only nitrogen, but also other nutrients are accumulated in the soil. Green fertilizer in the soil decomposes much faster than other organic fertilizers rich in fiber. Green fertilizer slightly reduces the acidity of the soil, significantly increases the permeability and moisture capacity of the soil, as a result of which the surface runoff of precipitation decreases and the moisture content in the soil increases sharply. As a green fertilizer (siderates), the following are mainly cultivated: lupine, sweet clover, mustard, alfalfa, phacelia.
Eng.: White mustard, MUSTARD YELLOW. Bot. syn.: Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba.
We plant ... fertilizers.
"We kill two birds with one stone": we increase soil fertility and destroy weeds!
Green manure crops (green fertilizers) are grown on site to improve the structure of the soil and increase the content of nutrients in it. In addition, green manure is an ecologically clean source of organic matter; they contribute to the accumulation of humus in the soil. In terms of efficiency, these crops are equivalent to manure and are inferior to it only in terms of the content of phosphorus and potassium.
If you are just starting to develop a plot or are growing mainly annual plants in the garden, you can use green manure to control weeds along with classic weeding. They grow very quickly and will compete with weeds. Some green manure crops assimilate elements of mineral nutrition that are difficult to access for many vegetable and fruit plants from the soil. Later, during the decomposition of green manure, these elements are "released" and used by cultivated plants.
Plants from the legume family (lupine, peas, vetch, pelushka, seradella, clover, sweet clover) are suitable for "green fertilization", and from the cabbage family (mustard, rapeseed, oil radish) and other fast-growing plants (for example, buckwheat).
Legumes assimilate and accumulate nitrogen due to the symbiotic activity of nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Most cruciferous plants have phytosanitary properties: they suppress the development and reproduction of weeds, drive out such pests as nematodes and wireworms.
Planting cultivated plants immediately after plowing green manures is undesirable, since during the decomposition of the vegetative mass in the soil, active biochemical processes occur that suppress seed germination and plant growth. Therefore, you will have to wait 2-4 weeks and only after that start planting.
Dig up or plow the ground, loosen it, breaking all the clods, and level it with a rake. Spread green manure seeds by hand or with a seeder and lightly rake the ground. So that the green manure does not allow the weeds to grow, it is sown not in rows, but randomly - and then covered with a rake. Dig the green manure into the soil about 2-4 weeks before planting the main crop. If this is difficult, you can manually cut the green manure first and chop it up. The aboveground part of the green manure is plowed up on light soils to a depth of 15-18 cm, on heavy soils (clay) - by 12-15 cm (taking into account the fact that the younger the plant, the faster their vegetative mass decomposes).
In fruit orchards, it is better to use green fertilizers from legumes (lupine) or oat-pea mixture. Seeds are sown in early spring in tree trunks. The green mass of plants is plowed into the soil in the summer before budding begins. After that, you can immediately re-sow green manure crops. With early spring sowing, as soon as the snow melted, early ripening cold-resistant plants are picked up - mustard, oil radish, oats.
If time permits (for example, with late summer and autumn plantings in the aisles of the garden), it is best to bring green manure crops to the flowering stage.
When using green fertilizer, take into account this feature - do not plant plants from the same family as the green manure (for example, cabbage cannot be grown after an oilseed radish). This is due to the accumulation in the soil of pathogens or pests typical for plants of this family.