Origin: Greenland, Northern and Eastern Europe to Central Asia.
Special Features: Majestic flowering plant with aromatic and medicinal uses.
Colour: Greenish white to creamy white.
Natural Flowering Period: June - August.
Winter Hardiness Zone: Z4.
Growth Habit: Upright and statuesque.
Foliage: Long exotic-looking leaves unfold in the spring.
Height with Flowers: 180 - 250 cm.
Spacing between Plants: 75 cm.
Soil Requirements: Evenly moist soils, pH 5.8 - 6.8.
Location: Full sun.
Use: Plant together with other bold plants suited for moist soils: Eupatorium fistulosum, Euphorbia palustris and Vernonia noveboracensis.
Specialities: Early spring shoots have been used as a natural sweetener.
Grams per 1000 Seeds: 5,9
Seeds per Gram: 170-180
Seeding Recommendation: 50 g / 1000 plants
Sowing Rate: 8 seeds per cell
Plug tray recommended size(s): 72.
Germination: the sowing must be kept warm (about +18 to 22°C) and moist for the first 2-4 weeks. After this period the sowing must be kept at a cold temperature (between -4 and +4°C) for another 4-6 weeks. It is not so important if the temperature is higher or lower during the cooling period, but the cooling period has to be prolonged because the synthesis of the germination inducer, hormonlike acid, slows down or comes to a standstill. It is beneficial to cover the sowing with snow during the cooling-period. The temperature below it usually keeps in the optimum range of -4 to 0°C . The sowing is kept moist, and the melting snow helps to destroy the shell, which is advantageous for the germinating seedling. After this cooling-period the sowing may not be immediately exposed to high temperatures. The most effective temperatures are between +5 to 12°C , even if germination has started. The best location for this sowing, even in March, April and May, is the open field, the cold frame or a cold greenhouse.
Best Sowing Dates: November - March
Sowing to Germination: 10 - 12 weeks
Germination to Transplant: 4 - 6 weeks
Transplanting to Salable Plant: 6 - 8 weeks
Cutting-Back at Transplanting: Cut back 1-2 times: once at transplanting; once again 4 weeks later to keep more compact.
Container Size(s): 1-2 plugs per 11/12 c, 2-3 plugs per 15 cm
Vernalization: There is no current research on vernalization but a prudent recommendation for any perennial would be 6-12 weeks (a few might need 15 weeks!) at an average daily temperature of (5°C). Exposure to cold may not be necessary for flowering but might improve quality.
Forcing: An obvious place to experiment - following vernalization - would be raising daytime temperatures to 15° - 17°C. Provide 16 hours of continuous lighting. During the short days of winter, provide a night interruption lighting of 4 hours between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m.
Fertilization: Medium (150-200 ppm).
Eng.: Angelica, archangel, European angelica, garden angelica, masterwort, root of the holy ghost, wild celery, wild parsnip.
Bot.syn.: Angelica litoralis Fr., Angelica officinalis Moench, Archangelica litoralis (Fr.) C. Agardh, Archangelica officinalis (Moench).